Zoopharmacognosy studies how animals use leaves, roots, seeds and minerals to treat a variety of ailments.

Zoopharmacognosy and epigenetic behavior of life… on earth…

Eating on the wild side: the pharmacologic, ecologic, and social implications of using noncultigens.

A cultigen (from the Latin cultus – cultivated, and gens – kind) is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection. These “man-made” or anthropogenic plants are, for the most part, plants of commerce that are used in horticulture, agriculture and forestry

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultigen

http://www.sidalc.net/cgi-bin/wxis.exe/?IsisScript=oet.xis&method=post&formato=2&cantidad=1&expresion=mfn=015016

have humans because of … pride and prejudice.. become “stupider” than animals…

just so we can “destroy” each other… and “our” “medicine” planet….

or am i the “bad one” for saying something about it…?

you all destroy in reputation so you can “enslave” each other as “debt” slaves”…. yet does your “reputation” save you from death….?

you just made a mistake… that is all… “forgive yourself” and move on… before … “life”(like Godzilla or something) makes that choice for you…

mf… i will forever… be “louder”!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

even in “death”…

(those that know me… I am not scared.. of “death” like “drug addicts” are not scared of death…but i am… “reverent” of our… “covenant” with GOD.. with the seriousness… that those “scared” of death have….. ) shameless and incouragable i am…so what….

it cost me.. my life….

music i am listen to…. for this “session”…
http://www.progarchives.com/mediaPlayer.asp?genreId=19

i suppose you are telling me… I need something like a “job”

muther fuckers… i am “employing you” all… to… “change” your “system”…

or keep the one you have…

either way… you will “get your hearts desire”…

choose wisely…

the key is “how” they eat it…

meaning watch even how.. “addicts” use… and you will understand…. “how” …

the protocol is not… “self-medicating” but…

“consciousness”

the state of being awake and aware of one’s surroundings.

if you “desire to tell me… that all life does not…”feel aware”

i hope you have… forgiveness in your heart..

cause if you are “touched” you will know….

in view of eternity…

it is not wrong to “eat”

but wrong to ‘take” without “permission”

and not give thanks…

in view of “eternity”….

http://www.pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/shakai-seitai/shakai-shinka/huffman/news%20etc/2000.10-11%20WILDLIFE.pdf

Zoopharmacognosy studies how animals use leaves, roots, seeds and minerals to treat a variety of ailments.

http://www.natural-wonder-pets.com/do-wild-animals-heal-themselves.html

Sheep self-medicate when challenged with illness-inducing foods
Animal Behaviour (2006)

Frederick D Provenza , Utah State University
Juan J Villalba
Ryan Shaw

https://works.bepress.com/frederick_provenza/203/

http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/pnb/images/stories/courses/psych4d6/thesisabstracts/Externals/Sakic/2012-13Hatkar_abstract.pdf

How other primates self-medicate – and what they could teach us
Authors: Daoudi, Sophia

http://hdl.handle.net/1893/23624

http://westerlymsscience.pbworks.com/f/Really%20Wild%20Remedies-Medicinal%20Plant%20Use%20by%20Animals%20-%20National%20Zoo%20FONZ.pdf

For millennia, our ancestors have enjoyed, and even regarded as sacred, a variety of mind-altering substances. Cultural artifacts, visionary artwork and rituals in many indigenous cultures and past civilizations point to this fact. As Ethan Nadelmann remarked in a recent TED talk, “Our desire to alter our consciousness may be as fundamental as our desires for food, companionship, and sex.”

While Homo sapien consumption for consciousness-expanding purposes is well-documented throughout anthropology and history, ample evidence suggests we are not the only creatures who seek mind-altering plants and substances in their environment.

Indeed, plenty of our animal friends enjoy mind-altering substances: Some eat fermented fruits, psychoactive mushrooms, and opium poppies. Others rub themselves with crushed ants or angry millipedes.

The initial attraction to these substances might not be just to get high, but for nutritional or protective purposes. For example, fermenting fruits might be attractive to certain species because the process signifies the fruit is at its highest caloric value, and is also going to rot soon. In other cases, naturally occurring intoxicants might serve some curative function or contain nutrients that are otherwise scarce in the environment.

But, there’s compelling evidence to suggest that altering one’s state of mind for the simple purposes of experiencing that altered state is a natural drive common to many inhabitants of the animal kingdom. See for yourself.

1. Lemurs and capuchin monkeys get high off of millipedes.

The idea that some animals get high off other animals is an intriguing one, and lemurs and capuchin monkeys seem to be doing just this with poisonous millipedes. The millipedes store toxic chemicals, including cyanide, which they release in defense when provoked. The primates pick up and agitate millipedes and then rub them all over their bodies, coating themselves in the defensive secretions — here’s a BBC documentary clip on this. As mentioned in the video, the primary reason for this seem to be protection against a variety of parasites, but the monkeys and lemurs also seem to enjoy a thoroughly blissful intoxication as a result. The monkeys, being more social animals, have been seen passing a millipede around, reminiscent of a group of people passing around a joint.

2. Dolphins enjoy the psychoactive effects of poisonous pufferfish.

Similar to the lemurs and monkeys above, dolphins have been observed hanging out in groups of four to seven, passing around an angry pufferfish. The pufferfish releases an extremely potent poison called tetrodotoxin which is more deadly than nerve gas or the venom of the black widow spider, and thus is one of the most toxic compounds known to man. Evolutionary biologist Dr. Christie Wilcox is skeptical of the theory that dolphins are intentionally doing this for the purpose of intoxication and pleasure, but there is some compelling evidence to the contrary. For example, the BBC documentary Spy in the Pod showed dolphins passing around a pufferfish and then floating near the surface of the water, apparently in a “trance-like state.”

3. Many species of birds do what is called “anting.”

A seemingly odd behavior, ravens, myna birds, jays, magpies, and other birds sometimes either rub themselves with ants or get intimate with anthills to coat themselves in ants (see a jay do it here). This is called anting, and its purpose remains unclear.

An article published in the journal of the American Ornithologist’s Union in 1974 reviewed the possible explanations for anting. One theory is that the birds are coating themselves with the ant’s defensive chemical secretions, thus applying a protective coating much like when we apply insect repellent.

Another possibility is that the secretions serve to soothe the bird’s body during molting season. Others point to the curious movement sometimes observed during anting (described by one ecologist as “a curious dance that involved flopping around on the grass with its wings outstretched and its beak open”) as proof of an intoxicated state, suggesting that anting is pleasurable for the birds.

Perhaps the answer is a combination of these theories. Similar to how humans use cannabis, anting may at times serve a protective or curative purpose, while at other times be done mainly for the enjoyment of the altered state it brings about.

4. Many animals seek out fermented fruits in the wild.

It has been widely reported that elephants get themselves drunk from the marula tree’s fermented fruit. Anecdotal reports of these stumbling elephants go back over a century, and the phenomenon was portrayed in the film Animals are Beautiful People by James Uys (Uys also made The Gods Must Be Crazy). The idea is that the fallen fruit ferments either on the ground before being eaten, or in the elephant’s digestive system, yielding one drunk pachyderm.

As fun as it is to think about inebriated elephants, this theory has been debunked by an article published in the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology journal in 2006, and it’s been suggested that the clips shown in the above video were staged by artificially sedating the elephants. For starters, elephants don’t eat the rotten fruit from the ground, instead preferring to ram the tree trunk to shake loose the ripe fruit, even when there’s fruit on the ground available. Another hypothesis, which suggests that the fruit ferments in the digestive system, is also out of the question; the fruits are not in the digestive system long enough for that to happen, and the sugars needed for fermentation are metabolized by the elephant before they can be converted to alcohol by yeast. And, in order to get drunk an elephant would need to eat 1,400 fully fermented marula fruits — an unlikely feat. Despite its improbability, the myth, and convincing videos of seemingly drunk elephants, persist.

However, there have been confirmed reports of other animals that regularly consume fermented fruit. The pen-tailed treeshrew, native to Thailand and Malaysia, is known to regularly snack on the nectar of the bertam palm tree, sharing this indulgence with the slow loris and several other mammals native to that area, according to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science in 2008. The palm’s flower bud houses a species of yeast that ferments the nectar, bringing it to a beer-like alcohol content of up to 3.8%. It is estimated that, in one night, the treeshrew can consume the equivalent of nine alcoholic beverages. However, they show no overt signs of intoxication because their bodies use more efficient ways of breaking down alcohol than we do, preventing the accumulation of alcohol necessary for getting drunk. Similarly, bats regularly encounter and consume fermented fruits in the wild. Like the treeshrew, they show no signs of intoxication. When scientists gave bats an alcohol solution and made them fly an obstacle course, they performed no worse than their sober counterparts.

Monkeys also have a taste for alcohol — not only do they seek out fermented fruits, but they also like to steal alcoholic drinks from tourists. And their taste for alcohol has allowed for some pretty interesting research on their drinking habits. Vervet monkeys that were given access to alcohol in a social setting show some striking parallels to the drinking patterns of humans. The monkeys could be grouped into social drinkers, which prefer sweetened drinks and only drink in the company of others; regular drinkers, which prefer their drinks straight, make good leaders, and are socially dominant; binge drinkers, which are aggressive and can drink themselves to death within months if given unrestricted access to alcohol; and abstainers. What’s more, not only the types of drinkers similar to humans, but the proportions of each of these behavior patterns in the monkeys studied reflects those found in human populations. These findings raise the possibility that our patterns of drug consumption are more fundamental aspects of our animal nature than we might think.

5. Horses seek out locoweed for its intoxicating effects.

Locoweed refers to any plant that produces the chemical swainsonine. It is thought that horses are initially attracted to these plants because they remain green longer than other plants once winter comes around. However, they begin to seek it out for its intoxicating effects, increasing their use over time. Farmers do their best to eliminate locoweed from their properties, as its frequent consumption is damaging to the animal’s health. A study published in the Journal of Animal Science in 2003 found that horses that ate the weed for two weeks developed significant weight loss and signs of depression. Swainsonine interferes with a metabolic enzyme, resulting in the buildup of the simple sugar mannose in neural cells. If severe, this buildup can lead to heart problems, reproductive difficulties, and neurological damage to the horses.

6. Jaguars eat the ayahuasca vine.

According to this Discovery article, humans aren’t the only ones that use Banisteriopsis caapi (one of the two plants used to make ayahuasca) as a psychoactive. This Amazonian jungle vine contains several compounds called beta-carbolines that potentiate the DMT in the ayahuasca brew by inhibiting bodily enzymes that would otherwise be responsible for breaking down the DMT. It turns out that jaguars also seek out the leaves of this jungle vine.

Higher doses of harmala alkaloids often result in vomiting and diarrhea characteristic of ayahuasca, so one possibility is that they consume the vine to purge the intestinal tract of possible parasites; a study of the Amazonian Piaroa tribe published in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs suggests that eating the leaves grants the jaguar heightened sensory perception, helping them hunt. However, the jaguars are also known to roll around in ecstasy after consuming the vine, suggesting to some that its use is primarily for pleasure. See it for yourself here.

7. Reindeer eat the psychoactive Amanita muscaria mushrooms.

These red-and-white psychedelic mushrooms, native to temperate and boreal regions in the Northern Hemisphere and thought to be the sacrament referred to as Soma in one of Hinduism’s foundational texts, are also a favorite snack of reindeer. As Gordon Wasson relates in his book Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality, reindeer are reported to prance about after eating the fungi — which are commonly referred to as “fly agaric” — apparently reveling in their intoxicated state. Reindeer are also an integral part of the history of Amanita use by indigenous peoples of Northern Europe and Siberia. As Reset.me recently reported, a 2009 BBC video explains how the Sami people indigenous to the Arctic Circle have long used fly agaric mushrooms in their visionary rituals. It is theorized that the connection between reindeer, Sami and fly agaric mushrooms is the basis for the legend of Santa’s flying reindeer.

Not only did these people herd reindeer, the animal being their main source of food and clothing, but they also got high with a little help from their reindeer friends. The effects of Amanita muscaria are characterized by a certain unpredictability, as their ingestion can bring about a range of thoroughly unpleasant side-effects and physical symptoms. In time, it was discovered that muscimol, the active compound of the mushrooms, is not processed by the body but is instead flushed out through urination while the more toxic compounds responsible for the body load are broken down. This led to the practice in some places of drinking the psychoactive urine of the shaman who had eaten, and thus purified, the mushroom. Some shamans even drank the urine of reindeer that had eaten the mushrooms. It turns out that the reindeer, intelligent in their own right, also realized that they could get high from the urine of a human that had consumed the mushroom, leading to what Cracked humorously referred to as “The Circle of Piss.”

8. Wallabies ravage opium poppy fields.

Tasmania is a leading producer of opium poppies for the pharmaceutical industry, supplying the morphine necessary for the production of painkillers. There’s only one problem: wallabies love the poppies. They’ll raid a field, gorge themselves on poppies, and crush the plantations in the process. As reported by BBC in 2009, the issue of stoned wallabies was even discussed at a parliamentary hearing on the security of opium crops in Tasmania, with the country’s attorney general stating that wallabies were “entering poppy fields, getting high as a kite, and going around in circles.”

9. Pigs dig up truffles containing cannabinoids.

Black truffles, a gourmet delicacy for us humans, are also a sought-after snack for pigs. These mushrooms grow exclusively below ground and are identified by pigs by their aroma, said to be reminiscent of wet earth, dried fruit, and cacao. A recent article in the journal Phytochemistry revealed that the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) contains the cannabinoid anandamide, a compound structurally related to THC that is also found endogenously in the human body and is a key component of the body’s endocannabinoid system. Anandamide derives its name from the Sanskrit word ananda, meaning “bliss.” Researchers suggest that the anandamide in black truffles might be “an ancient attractant to truffle eaters that are well-equipped with with endocannabinoid receptors,” indirectly suggesting that humans might be drawn to truffles for the same reason.

9 Animal Species That Use Psychoactive Substances In The Wild

Why do chimps chew on leaves that they clearly find revolting? And why do elephants risk death to extract rocks from a mountain cave in Kenya? Perhaps they know something we don’t about staying healthy, says Jerome Burne

Jerome Burne
Guardian

The field researcher watching a couple of chimpanzees in Gombe national park in Tanzania noticed something odd. One of them, known as Hugo, had left the path and started picking at the leaves of a plant called Aspilia rudis.

The shrub was not part of chimpanzees’ usual diet, unsurprisingly since its leaves are rough, sharp and extremely nasty to eat. Yet Hugo had not only sought it out but he’d also eaten the leaves in a particular way, carefully folding them up concertina-style and holding them briefly in his mouth before swallowing. From the way he was grimacing, it looked just as if he was taking an old- fashioned medicine.

That observation in 1972 was to lead to a whole new way of thinking about animals and their health. At the time the notion that animals might be deliberately treating themselves with natural medicines was beyond the scientific pale. It’s true there was no shortage of anecdotes about animals using herbs to cure themselves, cultures as far apart as China and ancient Rome have them and all pet owners know about cats and dog eating grass when they’re sick. But until very recently, scientists dismissed such reports as romantic anthropomorphism.

But, gradually, the researchers in the Gombe began to gather evidence to show that something very deliberate was going on. They found that Aspilia leaves were used by local herbalists for stomach upsets and that they contained chemicals which were both antibacterial and attacked gut parasites. What’s more, other chimps were seen occasionally eating from 19 other plants that also had rough leaves, in the same way. The leaves were excreted whole and, when examined closely, tiny nodular worms that infect the gut could be seen wriggling on the barbs on the leaf surface.

This is just one of dozens of examples of animals actively taking care of their health featured in a fascinating new book, Wild Health: How Animals Keep Themselves Well and What We Can Learn From Them. Far from self-medication being romantic nonsense, author Cindy Engel, of the Open University, shows that most animals routinely use a variety of techniques to deal with injury, infection, parasites and biting insects. They use plants, earth and even insects in ways that aren’t just about getting energy or nutrients but are specifically aimed at keeping themselves and their offspring healthy. The implications are huge. Not just for how we should look after domestic and farm animals but for what we need to stay healthy ourselves.

Compared with their domesticated counterparts – sheep, for example need seven de-worming treatments a year – surveys have found wild animals are remarkably healthy, muscled and lean, with few parasites. Significantly, they have often been infected with diseases that devastate domesticated animals without showing any ill effects – wild boar with swine fever or wild deer with tuberculosis. The farmers’ understandable response is to shoot the wild “carriers”, a more far-sighted view, suggests Engel, would be to discover just how wild animals generally stay so disease-resistant.

Just as we don’t usually take aspirins unless we have a headache, so animals tend to avoid medicinal plants unless they need them. At the Awash falls in Ethiopia, for example, there are two baboon populations, one above and one below. The tree Balanites aegyptiaca, the fruit of which is used by the locals as a de-worming treatment, grows in both areas. But it is only the lower baboons, which are exposed to a parasite spread by water snails, eat it.

But plants aren’t the only source of medicinal substances. There’s a cave on the side of Mount Elgon, an extinct volcano in western Kenya, which has been mined by generations of elephants. It’s estimated they have taken 5m litres of rock in the last 2m years. Access to it is tricky, but the animals are willing to risk death to get there. The bones of those who didn’t make it line the trail. Once inside they dig out the soft rock with their tusks, grind it with their teeth and then swallow it.

The rocks contain 100 times more sodium than they can get from the plants they normally eat, as well as being rich in potassium and calcium. Sodium is vital for all metabolic processes, especially for handling the toxins which are an inevitable part of a plant diet – an estimated 40% of plants contain some sort of defensive chemicals.

This sort of preventative medicine can take a rather shocking turn. In the Shetlands and on the Isle of Rhum in the Hebrides the soils are poor and lack these nutrients, so the sheep and deer have discovered a novel source. They bite the legs off the living chicks of the local nesting sea birds to get at the minerals in their bones.

Many animals also eat clay, which is not only an effective way of binding and excreting various toxins but, by lining the gut, it can treat gastrointestinal problems. Native people often mix clay with tannin-rich foods such as acorns before cooking them (tannins are bitter chemicals produced by plants as a defence but they are also active against bacteria and fungi).

A type of clay regularly mined by mountain gorillas in Rwanda is very similar to the kaolin sold in chemists for relief of upset stomachs. Another good source of clay are termite mounds, and chimpanzees are often seen breaking off chunks of soil from them. In one close study of five chimps seen eating termite soil, all were found to be suffering from gastrointestinal problems.

Most animals are plagued by small biting insects such as fleas, lice, mites, ticks and various parasites which can drain blood and inhibit growth, so they have developed a variety of ways to deal with them. Monkeys, apart from constant grooming, also rub themselves with soothing plants and even insects. Capuchins in Costa Rica, for instance, use the Piper plant, from the chilli family, which contains compounds that deaden pain and kill off insects. Catnip probably does something similar for cats.

Capuchins also rub their fur with millipedes, which make toxic chemicals known as benzoquinones that keep other insects away, as well as killing bacteria. Birds do something similar with a technique called “anting”. They lie out on an anthill and encourage the ants to crawl into their feathers because they secrete formic which can kill lice, mites and bacteria.

But the use of nature’s pharmacy isn’t all serious Engel has come up with some controversial evidence that many animals and birds simply like getting stoned. Certainly elephants can detect the fermenting fruit of the marula tree from 10kms and will coming running for it. The Bohemian waxwing has a taste for rowan berries that have begun to ferment. The birds are often found in heaps, dead on the ground, having fallen off their perch. Postmortem examinations show they were drunk when they died and that they had acute alcoholic liver disease.

So why do they do it? There is evidence to suggest that elephants drink to relieve stress – just like the double Martini executive. Elephants given access to alcohol drank twice as much when their stress levels were raised. A more prosaic explanation is that alcohol is a good source of calories and if times get hard, then it makes sense to stock up on fuel.

Such an explanation doesn’t work for the attraction that hallucinogenic plants seem to have for a variety of species. Jaguars, for instance, have been seen gnawing at the bitter ayahuasca vine used by Amazonian shaman, while bighorn sheep in the Canadian Rockies take great risks to get at a narcotic lichen. Engel’s highly speculative suggestion is that animals’ brains and, by implication, ours may benefit from an occasional boost from these potent neurochemicals.

Whether or not we all need the odd bite of peyote is far from clear. What is certain is that our hominid ancestors ate a far more varied diet than we do. It was a diet that would seem very bitter and astringent to us but was filled with a huge range of potent chemicals, many of which would have been effective against parasites and pathogens. While chimpanzees are known to eat 123 different plant varieties in a year, even the most health-conscious westerner rarely consumes more than 20 or 30. Seventy five percent of our global food supply comes from just 12 crops.

But while we would undoubtedly benefit from adopting a much wider diet and could learn lessons from animals about avoiding antibiotic resistance, there are some self-medicating techniques which will never catch on. Anyone for licking wounds or a daily anointing with urine?

Wild Health: How Animals Keep Themselves Well and What We Can Learn From Them is published by Weidenfeld and Nicolson at £20. Jerome Burne is the editor of the monthly newsletter Medicine Today.

http://primates.com/misc/index.html

Wild Plants Used for Medicine and Food

Learning wild plants used for medicine, food, and tools is also known as the study of ethnobotany (how people utilize plants). Edible and medicinal plants can provide healthy alternatives to highly processed foods and pharmaceuticals, bringing greater health into our lives.

To effectively use wild plants, one must learn basic plant identification skills, especially for poisonous plants, as well as ethics, proper collection and preparation methods.

This section of the online library provides articles on wild plants used for medicine, food, and utilitarian purposes. Articles often include references to excellent books, resources, and classes. We hope you enjoy these resources that can help you discover ways to bring wild plants into your life.

You can peruse the articles below and/or sign up to the Alderleaf eNewsletter to get updates on new articles.

Information & Articles on Wild Plants Used for Medicine & Food:

Wild Edible Plants: Benefits, Hazards, and Major Groups
We are surrounded by wild plants used for medicine and food everyday. Here are some important consideration for getting started with wild edibles… (read more)

Coniferous Forest Plants in the Pacific Northwest
Coniferous forest plants are a unique and beautiful part of our world’s biodiversity. They provide food, medicine, wildlife habitat, and materials for tools… (read more)

Plants That Repel Mosquitoes
There are a variety of both wild and cultivated plants that repel mosquitoes. Almost anywhere you go, it is reasonable to find several plant species that you can use to ward off these pesky critters. (read more)

Pacific Bleeding Heart Plants
Pacific bleeding heart plants are found throughout the moist lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. It is a delicate, low-growing beauty, also known as the western bleeding heart. (read more)

Red Huckleberry Plants: A Valuable Northwest Native
Red huckleberry plants are abundant in the northwest. These delicate translucent berries have been a source of food for generations of Northwest natives, animals and people alike. (read more)

Medicinal Uses of Elderberry Plants
Blue and red elderberry plants have been used for generations by the native people of the Pacific Northwest as both powerful medicine and vitamin-packed food supplements. (read more)

Wild Strawberry Plants: The Sweetest Little Gift of the Forest
Though smaller than the cultivated garden varieties, their flavor and sweetness is unmatched. Wild strawberries are rich in vitamins A and C, as well as high in iron, potassium and calcium. (read more)

Cottonwood Salve, Part 1: Jan 2008 issue of the Alderleaf eNewsletter
Early February is often the best time in the Pacific Northwest to collect sap-filled buds of cottonwood trees for making medicine. The sweet-smelling sticky sap, also known as… (read more)

Cottonwood Salve, Part 2: Feb 2008 issue of the Alderleaf eNewsletter
Now that you have created cottonwood oil, you can use the following recipe to create your very own medicinal salve. The advantages of a salve is that the medicine is turned into an ointment… (read more)

Five Temperate Rainforest Plants to Know in the Pacific Northwest
Temperate rainforest plants used for medicine, food, or made into tools. The following wild plants are some of the most useful species in the Pacific Northwest. (read more)

List of Medicinal Plants in the Temperate Rainforest
A thorough listing of wild plants used for medicine found on the west side of the Cascade Mountains and nearby habitats of the Pacific Northwest. (read more)

Identifying Wild Mushrooms
There is nothing quite like the feeling of coming upon a strange and wonderful mushroom on a walk or wander! For many of us the next step is mushroom identification… (read more)

Medicinal Herb Gardening Using Permaculture Techniques
Medicinal herb gardening is a wonderful way to begin incorporating permaculture into your life. Growing plants used for medicine allows you experiment with small-scale sustainable gardening… (read more)

List of Deer Resistant Plants
When working with nature in gardening or landscaping it is often helpful to know which plants to consider when deer are a potential concern. Deer can eat a variety… (read more)

Edible Weeds: A Different Perspective
Everywhere you walk, you are probably surrounded by wild edible weeds. These plants likely have among them some great edible as well as medicinal species. It is truly amazing… (read more)

Blackberry Plants : One of the Tastiest Wild Fruits
One of the tastiest of all wild fruits grows on the vines of blackberry plants. It is a well-known and well loved plant found throughout the United States. Humans have… (read more)

Fiddlehead Ferns
Of all the wild edible plants, fiddlehead ferns are some of the most unique and flavorful. Fiddleheads are the unfurled new leaves of a fern. They vary in size, shape and palatability from… (read more)

Edible Berries
The most delicious treats to be found foraging in the wild, edible berries are a delight to find and to eat! There is a wealth of wild edible berries throughout North America, and a great number of them grow… (read more).

Edible Wild Mushrooms
Do you want to learn how to find and identify edible wild mushrooms? Learning about edible wild mushrooms can seem like an overwhelming process, but don’t get discouraged… (read more).

Poisonous Mushrooms
Some poisonous mushrooms can kill you! It is essential to learn to identify the poisonous mushrooms properly and avoid them carefully. The good news is that… (read more)

Types of Evergreen Trees
How can you tell the different types of evergreen trees apart and which ones are your best allies in a survival situation? Where are they found and what do they look like… (read more)

Tree Identification
Do you need help with tree identification? Tree identification is most easily done if you look at the parts of a tree in front of you, and using them, look up the tree in a … (read more)

Tincture Recipes: Making Home Remedies
Looking for some great tincture recipes to help you heal and stay healthy? For starters, tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plants used for medicine… (read more).

Plant Identification: A Practical Approach
Plant identification in the field can be a challenge. Learn about a simple, straightforward system for identifying plants used at many of Alderleaf’s courses… (read more)

Herbal Cold Remedy from Wild Plants
Learn how to make your own herbal cold remedy from wild harvested local plants used for medicine. Cedar fronds combined with roots or inner bark of the Oregon grape make a powerful herbal cold remedy… (read more)

Floating Pond Plants: For Habitat, Food and Beauty
Learn what plants to bring to your ponds for food, beauty and wildlife habitat. Unlike emergent pond plants the floating pond plants, serve a completely different and yet necessary role in your pond…(read more)

Types of Mushrooms: For Medicine and Permaculture
Mushrooms are a rich source of both foods and medicines. Read about what mushrooms you can use as medicine and the enhance your garden or other permaculture projects…(read more)

Water Hemlock: A Deadly Poisonous Plant
When you begin learning about wild plants, a great place to start is with the most dangerous species found in your area. Learn to recognizes and how to avoid this highly toxic member of the Carrot family… (read more)

Antifungal Herbs: Healing Allies
A variety of truly wonderful antifungal herbs are used by herbalists to help treat different ailments…(read more)

How to Grow Blueberries
Learning how to grow blueberries is simple and they can provide a unique addition to our diet… (read more)

Herbs for Allergies: Common Allies
Utilizing herbs for allergies can be an effective way to lessen and to treat allergic symptoms… (read more)

Plants in the Desert: Living Survival Aids
There are many plants in the desert that can serve as vital aids in wilderness survival. Some serve as a source of food, some as material for shelters and others serve as the perfect material for friction fires…(read more)

Pacific Northwest Trees
Pacific northwest trees are one of the most important resources to survival, providing firewood, shelter, tools, food, medicine, wildlife habitat, and so much more to the ecosystem…(read more)

Urban Foraging: Eat Your Weeds
The practice of urban foraging can help benefit you and your family during times of emergency…(read more)

Natural Cold Remedies
Here’s the recipe for one of our favorite natural cold remedies that uses ingredients found in your kitchen and backyard…(read more)

Chantrelle Mushrooms: Gifts of the Forest
Chantrelle mushrooms – which are also called “chanterelles” – are one of the most harvested and most widely enjoyed wild mushrooms in the world…(read more)

How to Make a Tincture
Learning how to make a tinctures is a great way to preserve and use medicinal plants, however they do not replace the nourishment you gain from eating wild foods…(read more)

How to Make Cottonwood Salve
Cottonwood salve is an amazing medicine made of natural ingredients, read more to learn how to make it… (read more)

Antiviral Herbs
Are you familiar with any antiviral herbs? You’ve probably heard the terms antiviral, antibacterial and antimicrobial. Learn more hear about antiviral herbs…(read more)

Nettle Infusions
Do you know the health benefits of using nettle infusions? Nutritionally speaking, nettle infusions are high in iron, potassium, calcium, manganese and vitamins A, C and D…(read more)

Wild Edible Greens
Some of the most delicious wild foods are wild edible greens. These wild foods are typically more strongly flavored and far more nutritious for us than their domestic counterparts…(read more)

Foraging for Wild Edibles
Have you ever been curious about foraging for wild edibles? There are many ways to go about it, and some are certainly more effective and enjoyable than others…(read more)

Edible Wildflowers: Identification, Harvesting, Examples, & Cautions
Spring and summer provide us with the opportunity to build an in-depth relationship with the various plant communities in our respective bioregions… (read more)

Lobster Mushroom
This mushroom might be one of the strangest organisms people like to eat! This bizarre fungus goes by the Latin name Hypomyces lactifluorum, and earns its name from its scent and flavor…(read more)

Edible Seaweeds
Edible Seaweeds are one of the sensory delights of the living seashore. With their fantastic shapes, colors and tastes they are quite an experience for the adventurous palate and a valuable survival food…(read more)

Morel Mushrooms
Morel mushrooms are an elusive, exciting and distinctly delicious group of wild mushrooms. Learn to identify the choice edibles from the potentially deadly toxic look-alikes…(read more)

Salad made from wild flowers and greens

Additional Resources on Plants Used for Medicine and Food:

Learn about Wild Edible & Medicinal Plants Courses at Alderleaf

Methow Valley Herbs

http://www.wildernesscollege.com/plants-used-for-medicine.html

http://search.proquest.com/openview/5ce96c0f88b924fa87a505a6b89fa8bc/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Obi_Augustine2/publication/286968087_Extract_of_Vernonia_Amygdalina_Del_African_Bitter_Leaf_Can_Reverse_Pancreatic_Cellular_Lesion_after_Alloxan_Damage_in_the_Rat/links/55492f410cf205bce7ac03fb.pdf

or learning… “what configurations of microbes” allow certian species to make “awesome” protiens…etc…

A team from Monash University’s Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute (ARMI), led by Dr Yona Goldshmit and Professor Peter Currie, discovered the role of a protein in the remarkable self-healing ability of the fish.

http://www.sciencealert.com/how-zebra-fish-heals-itself

instead of chewing them, the chimpanzees wadded them under their tongues, held them there for a while and then swallowed them whole.

http://search.proquest.com/openview/a028afae10f46111460b5465026308f0/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=47554

watch fishes… or other aquatic animals… “they “search for medicine”…

http://www.livescience.com/images/i/000/042/686/i02/topp-animal-track-map-110622.jpg?1320193199?interpolation=lanczos-none&downsize=640:*

http://drexel.edu/~/media/Images/now/release_images/Leatherback_tracking_Pacifi.ashx?w=615&h=370&as=1&la=en&hash=71E7DE249F522439F3ECD4A458551B0918D455AF

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/information/Diseases.htm

have a nice day…

in the end… it always comes down.. to how it happened “naturally” (by “accident” and forgave) or “by design” by some intelligence that “desired” to know it all…to “dominate it all”

Hulk vs. Abomination

the righteous… “know when to stop”…even if it is “hard”

you cannot “program people” to be about money… and have them… “seek knowledge” to heal in nature…. naturally..

it is one or the other…

you will imprison them in “civilization” or free them.. to “the true natural cities of the earth” (the Jerusalem)nature… the foundations of peace….etc…

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